Dominant reading

If a consumer smoked enough of the product, then this scene would no longer be possible. Oppositional Reading: An oppositional reading of this Marlboro ad might reference the irony of an image which relies on masculinity to sell a product which causes impotence in men; as well cardiovascular disease and lung cancer—clearly linked effects of cigarette consumption—sap strength, thus making physical work very difficult.

In this unit; It is important to be aware of the fact that each individual responder is positioned by their cultural background to attach meanings to particular visual cues.

Encoding and decoding A key figure responsible for the prioritisation of our social context and social variance within interpretations of culture was Stuart Hall, who headed up the Birmingham School of Cultural Studies from They embody the dominant values and beliefs in a culture and position the reader to favor that interpretation.

oppositional code

Culture can refer to groups of people such as nations or, more specifically, groups such as sporting teams. Resistant readings scrutinize the beliefs and attitudes that typically go unexamined in a text, drawing attention to the gaps, silences and contradictions.

reading against the grain

London: Oxford Press. You may like to reference the reading of your film in your critique as a point of interest.

Dominant and oppositional ideology

Many texts reflect the dominant culture and send the message that most people are heterosexual, Christian, white, perhaps male, and that this is the default point of view. We could also, however, read this extract as being more about the vices evils of drinking at the saloon. In his seminal article, he suggested how meaning is encoded in a text by its producers, and decoded from the text by its consumers. Composers of visual texts will also use the cultural assumptions of their audience in more subtle less obvious ways. Culture can refer to groups of people such as nations or, more specifically, groups such as sporting teams. Often this will involve a person from a lower class overcoming the power which those in the upper classes hold. An example will help to explain this more clearly. A cultural assumption is when we assume that a person has particular values and attitudes based on their cultural background. Any viewing will have multiple reactions from the audience and this further demonstrates that there is no one way to view a visual text such as film. So, a stop sign or traffic light that is red tells you that you should stop. There are a number of layers of meaning. Hall would distinguish three kinds of reading positions as a result: dominant, oppositional and negotiated. Composers of texts often use cultural assumptions to reach their audience. Further, the boy is wearing blue which is the culturally assumed colour for boys. Age - what are the characteristics of young people perhaps you believe them to be fun-loving and older people perhaps they are boring.
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Alternative/dominant and resistant readings