History shows us that in fact those nations which were predominantly Protestant showed economic growth much greater than those which were predominantly Catholic.Finch ed. Henrich, Dieter, Also noteworthy about this period is his extensive visit to America in , which left an indelible trace in his understanding of modernity in general [Scaff ]. According to Tawney, capitalist precepts and Protestant dogma fit hand in glove. If merely a heuristic device and not a universal law of progress, then, what is rationalization and whence comes his uncompromisingly dystopian vision? Roth intro , New Brunswick: Transaction. At other times, Weber seems to believe that democracy is simply non-legitimate, rather than another type of legitimate domination, because it aspires to an identity between the ruler and the ruled i. The primary concern for Weber in designing democratic institutions has, in other words, less to do with the realization of democratic ideals, such as rights, equality, justice, or self-rule, than with cultivation of certain character traits befitting a robust national leadership. In addition to the free electoral competition led by the organized mass parties, Weber saw localized, yet public associational life as a breeding ground for the formation of charismatic leaders. Mommsen, Wolfgang, Parsons trans. Tawney claims, with some good measure: There was plenty of capitalist spirit in fifteenth century Venice and Florence, or in south Germany and Flanders, for the simple reason that these areas were the greatest commercial and financial centers of the age. Weber then said, "Truly what is here preached is not simply a means of making one's way in the world, but a particular ethic Marshall, Gordon. It is unavoidable, for otherwise no meaningful knowledge can be attained.
Fantel trans. Even Calvin.
For Windelband, however, the difference between the two kinds of knowledge has to do with its aim and method as well. Kant managed to preserve the precarious duo of non-arbitrary action and subjective freedom by asserting such a linkage, which Weber believed to be unsustainable in his allegedly Nietzschean age.
Modern scientific and technological knowledge is a culmination of this process that Weber called intellectualization, in the course of which, the germinating grounds of human knowledge in the past, such as religion, theology, and metaphysics, were slowly pushed back to the realm of the superstitious, mystical, or simply irrational.
His dystopian and pessimistic assessment of rationalization drove him to search for solutions through politics and science, which broadly converge on a certain practice of the self.