The origins of the french revolution

The financial crisis had become a political crisis as well, [38] and the French Revolution loomed just beyond the horizon. Royalists and Jacobins protested the new regime but were swiftly silenced by the army, now led by a young and successful general named Napoleon Bonaparte.

There was plenty of philanthropy, such as schools for the disabled. This, together with other factors, had led to an increase in the population of Europe unprecedented for several centuries: it doubled between and Thousands of people were executed including Queen Marie Antoinette and many of Robespierre's political rivals.

French revolution pdf

The lands were controlled by bishops and abbots of monasteries, but two-thirds of the delegates from the First Estate were ordinary parish priests; only 51 were bishops. Collections of taxes, such as the extremely unpopular salt tax, the gabelle , were contracted to private collectors " tax farmers " , who, like all farmers, preoccupied themselves with making their holdings grow. They offered what they felt was the " just price " for it. When the nobles were told the extent of the debt, they were shocked; however, the shock did not motivate them to rally behind the plan — but to reject it. It is uncertain, however, whether revolution would have come without the added presence of a political crisis. Executive power would lie in the hands of a five-member Directory Directoire appointed by parliament. See Article History Alternative Title: Revolution of French Revolution, also called Revolution of , the revolutionary movement that shook France between and and reached its first climax there in Even the name suggests a major gap: it was old, the replacement is new. The peasants , many of whom owned land, had attained an improved standard of living and education and wanted to get rid of the last vestiges of feudalism so as to acquire the full rights of landowners and to be free to increase their holdings. Did you know? France was a wealthier country than Britain, and its national debt was no greater than the British one. The Bastille and the Great Fear On June 12, as the National Assembly known as the National Constituent Assembly during its work on a constitution continued to meet at Versailles, fear and violence consumed the capital. The practical size of France was shrinking too with an increase in travelers and the movement of goods and the speed with which they moved.

The Third Estate paid most of the taxes, while the nobility lived lives of luxury and got all the high-ranking jobs. Further, people from less-privileged walks of life were blocked from acquiring even petty positions of power in the regime.

French revolution facts

Historians now tend to believe this is largely a myth, and that much once regarded as purely the result of the revolution was actually evolving before it. Weather did not allow an outdoor meeting, and fearing an attack ordered by Louis XVI, they met in a tennis court just outside Versailles, where they proceeded to swear the Tennis Court Oath 20 June under which they agreed not to separate until they had given France a constitution. The explosion of the press which helped the revolution was certainly bolstered by the end of censorship during the upheaval but began in the decade before Grain merchants were viewed with suspicion, they were called "the most cruel enemies of the people" because they were suspected to mix flour with other products such as chalk or crushed bones or to hoard grains to raise artificially the prices of this vital commodity. Half were well educated lawyers or local officials. Elections were held in the spring of ; suffrage requirements for the Third Estate were for French-born or naturalised males, aged 25 years or more, who resided where the vote was to take place and who paid taxes. The Flour War can be seen as a prelude to the French Revolution. The lands were controlled by bishops and abbots of monasteries, but two-thirds of the delegates from the First Estate were ordinary parish priests; only 51 were bishops. While in theory King Louis XVI was an absolute monarch, in practice he was often indecisive and known to back down when faced with strong opposition.

This demonstrated a way in which the people took some power back into their own hands. The Catholic Church maintained a rigid hierarchy as abbots and bishops were all members of the nobility and canons were all members of wealthy bourgeois families.

effects of the french revolution

In good times, the taxes were burdensome; in harsh times, they were devastating. On the domestic front, meanwhile, the political crisis took a radical turn when a group of insurgents led by the extremist Jacobins attacked the royal residence in Paris and arrested the king on August 10, Would the clergy owe allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church or the French government?

He also pledged to reconvene the Estates-General within five years.

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Origins of the French Revolution